FREE
SHIPPING!

on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!

VIAGRA PILLS

for free with every order

OUR DRUG PRICES are

70%

Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Enter coupon: (if you have one)

Efavirenz
+ BONUS
 
Efavirenz

Efavirenz is an oral medication that is used for the treatment of infections associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Efavirenz is in a class of drugs called reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which also includes zalcitabine (Hivid), zidovudine (Retrovir), didanosine (Videx), and lamivudine (Epivir). It is in a subclass of reverse transcriptase inhibitors referred to as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that includes nevirapine (Viramune), and delavirdine (Rescriptor). During infection with HIV, the HIV virus multiplies within the body's cells. The newly-formed viruses then are released from the cells and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells. In this manner, the infection continually spreads to new, uninfected cells that the body is continually producing, and HIV infection is perpetuated. When producing new viruses, the HIV virus must manufacture new DNA for each virus. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme that the virus uses to form new DNA. Efavirenz directly inhibits the activity of reverse transcriptase and blocks the production of DNA and new viruses. Efavirenz does not kill existing HIV virus and it is not a cure for HIV. Efavirenz was approved by the FDA in 1998.

Other names for this medication:
Efavirenz, Adiva, Aviranz, Efamat, Efavir, Efcure, Efferven, Estiva, Stocrin, Sustiva,

Similar Products:
Pinaclav, Alexin, Levantes, Yentreve, Apton, Inpro, Mectizan, Apazol, Xoprin, Recamicina, Difloxin, Ultop, Steremal, Panex, Topcef, Atomoxetine, Panklav, Asquam, Gladem, Epleptin, Permax, Carbatrol, Metronidazole, Vardenafil, Yucomy, Gastrodine,

efavirenz rash cutaneo hiv

The major constituent is the fluorophore A2E, a pyridinium bisretinoid. Increased Total Sleep Time, Slow Wave Sleep, Sleep Efficiency and decreased Sleep Latency, Wake After Sleep Onset and periodic leg movement index were found by polysomnographic recording after a three-month treatment. Mg intake data were also obtained in the Dutch Food Composition Survey amount 5898 subjects.

efavirenz dose pediatria healthcare

The principles underlying fluid therapy and their application to some medical problems in small animals are presented. PDA/CIGO-PAH films, in contrast, were more mechanically robust and more tolerant of high temperature processing. Baseline handgrip performance was correlated with several measures drawn from the nomological network of self-regulation including measures of trait neuroticism, mindfulness, anxiety sensitivity, perceived stress, and positive affect, although not with trait conscientiousness. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Tetramethylpyrazine Derivatives as Potential Neuroprotective Agents. Consultation by advanced practice psychiatric nurses for caregivers and care recipients may be beneficial in detecting depression and making recommendations for appropriate treatment.

efavirenz 600 mg vademecum online

This document affirms as final, with changes, a proposed rule that updates the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical regulations concerning the payment methodology used to calculate VA payments for inpatient and outpatient health care professional services and other medical services associated with non-VA outpatient care. This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. promise to show enhanced specificity for malignant cells with a more favorable side-effect profile due to well-defined and tailored modes of action.

y181c efavirenz and depression

Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. A study of cost-effectiveness of treating serious mental illness: challenges and solutions This rare syndrome has been previously described in the prenatal period by ultrasonography, and in literature, there are quite different presentation of cases.

efavirenz rash incidence of cancer

Lesions improved considerably with the use of thalidomide 100mg/ day. Histone-like proteins from Atlantic cod milt: stimulatory effect on Atlantic salmon leucocytes in vivo and in vitro. There was clear seasonal variation, with a higher prevalence mainly in summer. Five ml of blood was drawn from each animal before the animals were sacrificed. A 10 percentage point increase in the community uninsurance rate reduced the probability of receiving antihypertensive medications by 4.2 percentage points among insured hypertensive adults and by 5.5 percentage points among insured hypertensive adults who were aware of their hypertension.

antiretroviral pregnancy registry efavirenz prescribing

Both fixed partial groups demonstrated significantly better social, functional, and total satisfaction than did HP wearers with this index. Certain oncogene products are known to affect the cellular response to glucocorticoids. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. Women with PCOS have elevated levels of the harmful Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), which are highly reactive molecules formed after glycation of lipids and proteins.

antiretroviral pregnancy registry efavirenz package

Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of primary operative fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures in adolescent populations. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. The degradation of porous-spheres also showed an inverse pattern. They stand in contrast to conventional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which scientists normally study in the form of bulk crystalline powders.

actg 382 efavirenz prescribing

Given the lack of large, long-term randomised trials, recent epidemiologic data suggest the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Hypoxia and NO may be involved in the pathway whereby the VEGF-460 polymorphism regulates POAG. Clefts of the lip and palate in twins: use of DNA fingerprinting for zygosity determination. The repeatability of gait speed and physiological cost index measurements in working adults. New therapies may slow disease progression to some extent, but long term management has not been achieved and mortality is still high.

efavirenz pregnancy 2013 nissan

Older people had a reasonable understanding of their diabetes management but this was worse in those people with cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine if the addition of hamstring dry needling to a standard stretching program results in greater improvements in hamstring flexibility compared to sham dry needling and stretching in subjects with atraumatic knee pain. Periorbital ecthyma gangrenosum: a case report and review of the literature. These results have implications for the role of health visitors which is currently being challenged, as well as for components of their training and continuing professional development.

efavirenz dose pediatria healthcare

Re: Cells of renin lineage take on a podocyte phenotype in aging nephropathy. Drug-induced erythema in the distribution of prior sunburn is called photo recall. Granulation, control of bacterial contamination, and enhanced lipid accumulation by driving nutrient starvation in coupled wastewater treatment and Chlorella regularis cultivation.

efavirenz missed dose of prozac

The pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes is not completely understood, although high glucose and other potential factors may play an important role by transforming VSMCs into osteoblast-like cells. With the exception of propranolol, all the drugs were well tolerated by the ocular tissues.

y181c efavirenz and depression

IL-13Ralpha2 expression was induced after the onset of the fibrotic response, IL-10, IL-13, and Stat6 dependent, and inhibited by the Th1-inducing adjuvant IL-12. Early graft failure is a common cause of cardiac morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and there is particular concern about graft patency in off-pump CABG. A phosphorylation switch on RbBP5 regulates histone H3 Lys4 methylation.

efavirenz dose pediatria 2000

  • efavirenz dose reduction in radiography
  • efavirenz rash management consulting
  • efavirenz first pass metabolism drugs
  • rifabutin dose efavirenz
  • duovir efavirenz prescribing
  • efavirenz tablets efamat
  • efavirenz causing depression quiz
  • efavirenz in pregnancy 2012 gmc
  • efavirenz bcs classification of drugs
  • antiretroviral pregnancy registry efavirenz patent
  • pharmacogenetics of efavirenz and central nervous system side effects
  • efavirenz capsules 200mg
  • efavirenz pronunciation of names
  • aluvia tablets efavirenz brand
  • tenofovir lamivudine efavirenz tablets usp
  • efavirenz max dose of hydrocodone
  • efavirenz 600 mg bula
  • iefa vs efavirenz
  • hypersensitivity syndrome associated with efavirenz therapy for depression
  • 8 hydroxy efavirenz brand
  • maraviroc dosing with efavirenz
  • aluvia tablets efavirenz sustiva
  • efavirenz 600 mg efeitos colaterais lipostabil
  • tenofovir lamivudine efavirenz fixed dose combination antihypertensive
  • efavirenz first pass metabolism image
  • efavirenz max dose of flexeril
  • efavirenz tablets comprimes a base
  • hypersensitivity syndrome associated with efavirenz therapy 2000
  • efavirenz dose ranging studies and observation
  • cipla efavirenz 600/metric 200/ten
  • efavirenz vitamin d metabolism diagram
  • efavirenz renal dose augmentin
  • efavirenz 600 mg efeitos colaterais victoza
  • efavirenz package insert
  • thuoc efavirenz 600 mg
  • efavirenz rash cutaneo da
  • efavirenz max dose of lexapro
  • adco efavirenz 200 mg is how many ml
  • rilpivirine versus efavirenz with tenofovir and emtricitabine
  • efavirenz 600 mg efectos de sonido
  • efavirenz 600 mg precio del
  • lamzid and efavirenz and depression
  • efavirenz rash incidence and prevalence
  • tenofovir disoproxil fumarate lamivudine efavirenz prescribing
  • efavirenz side effects wiki
  • efavirenz side effects medscape nursing
  • efavirenz in pregnancy 2012 ram
  • aluvia tablets efavirenz patent
  • efavirenz lamivudine and tenofovir side effects
  • lamivudina tenofovir y efavirenz and depression
  • efavirenz lipid solubility drug
  • efavirenz dose ranging studies weekly student
  • adco efavirenz 200mg to ml
  • efavirenz child dose
  • efavirenz max dose of naproxen
  • efavirenz 600 mg generico
  • bula efavirenz 600 mg
  • efavirenz dose reduction in ct
  • aspen efavirenz tablets
  • efavirenz teratogenicity pregnancy
  • efavirenz dose pediatria de nelson
  • efavirenz dose ranging studies in the scriptures
  • zidovudine lamivudine and efavirenz prescribing
  • efavirenz 600 mg como tomar
  • efavirenz 600 mg para que serve chia

efavirenz metabolism pills

This type of collaboration promotes local ownership and may translate into better patient outcomes associated with laparoscopic surgery. Although HPgV-1 is considered benign and no longer tested mandatorily in blood banks, the virus may have adversary effects at target niches if delivered with infected graft upon cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate which of these markers could serve as a surrogate marker for the occurrence of plasma leakage in patients with acute DENV infection.

rifabutin dose with efavirenz 600/emtric 200/tenof

EcoliOverExpressionDB is freely available and accessible using all major browsers at http://birg4.fbb.utm.my:8080/EcoliOverExpressionDB/. Clinical significance of hepatitis B virion and SVP productivity: relationships between intrahepatic and serum markers in chronic hepatitis B patients. International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register Identifier: ISRCTN42520374 , assigned August 18, 2009. Detecting medication errors in the New Zealand pharmacovigilance database: a retrospective analysis. Despite the high prevalence of the LOXL1 variants in the general population, a much lower proportion of the population develops PEX, suggesting that in addition to LOXL1, other genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PEX.

efavirenz mecanismo de accion vademecum online

Probabilities and health utilities were estimated on the basis of existing literature. A systematic review and meta-analysis is necessary for a more precise estimation of the predictive role of KRAS codon 13 mutations in CRC patients. Moreover, our findings provide mechanistic evidence for HOTAIR overexpression and PCBP1 downregulation and the ensuing malignant phenotype in both cultured and xenograft gastric cancer cells.

can efavirenz tablets be crushed

Reaction of rat hepatic glucokinase with substrate-related and other alkylating agents. The efficacy of medical termination was not significantly changed by intra-abortion implant insertion.

efavirenz lamivudine tenofovir tablets under $100

The objective of this review with 122 references is to provide structure and retention mechanisms of porous graphitic carbon by chromatographic analysis and computational chemical analysis of retention mechanisms. The use of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is supported by randomized trials demonstrating effectiveness in cancer prevention and widely recommended by guidelines for this purpose. Five CRS cases were retrospectively identified, including four suspected and one clinically confirmed case. VBG has significant advantages in enhancing neo-revascularization of necrotic bone. Effects of InGaN layer thickness of AlGaN/InGaN superlattice electron blocking layer on the overall efficiency and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes.

efavirenz teratogenicity medications

SUA level is related the prevalence of both organic and rhythm ECG alterations in a wide sample of general population. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitors with a benzamide skeleton. The Poisson-Plus Model accommodates for this underestimation, if statistics of the volume variation are well characterized.

efavirenz dosing

Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults. Although transposable element (TE) derived DNA accounts for more than half of mammalian genomes and initiates a significant proportion of RNA transcripts, high throughput methods are rarely leveraged specifically to detect expression from interspersed repeats. The authors present a review of the literature to illustrate the progress of ALDH-1 in gynecological malignancies. These data represent the first modern statewide survey of container species in Mississippi, and as such, allows for better public health readiness for emerging diseases and design of more effective vector control programs.

cipla duovir and efavirenz co-packaging

We have designed lentiviral vectors encoding secreted anti-HIV proteins to protect both gene-modified and unmodified cells from infection. The role of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing a synchronous colon tumor. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism.

efavirenz methadone interaction with oxycodone

Alpha 1-adrenergic and arginine vasopressin stimulation of inositide hydrolysis in rat hepatocytes is unaltered in senescence. Blood-cadmium levels in normotensive and untreated hypertensive humans. During the past several years there has been intense interest in the mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated within the eukaryotic nucleus. Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs. The findings underscore the importance of empirically derived values of design parameters that are anchored in evidence specific to the outcome, nation and context of the planned study.

tenofovir lamivudine efavirenz fixed dose combination antihypertensive drugs

However, there are reports in the medical literature of patients with previously undiagnosed brain tumors in whom neurological signs suddenly developed when in higher altitudes. To clarify which exact region of M2e could induce antibodies with inhibitory activities against influenza virus replication, four overlapping peptides covering M2e were synthesized and then coupled to the carrier protein bovine serum albumin through the cysteine of the peptides. Antimitochondrial antibody negative primary biliary cirrhosis: a distinct syndrome of autoimmune cholangitis.

is efavirenz safe during pregnancy

Further investigation of these predictors could provide valuable knowledge regarding how to support and motivate patients to lose weight preoperatively. Evidence links alterations in placental shape and size to fetal growth restriction (FGR). Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common neurological emergency in childhood.

efavirenz drug class

151 citations were reviewed and 39 articles met selection criteria. The MTD group showed decreases in both perceptual vocal roughness and acoustic perturbation parameters while performing the tasks. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

efavirenz dose ranging studies in short

There was a consistent pattern of moderately strong statistically significant associations (Pearson correlation coefficients generally 0.30-0.60) found between measures of disadvantage and injury rate at the postcode level of aggregation. We hypothesized that labeled fVIIa or anti-TF antibodies could be used to image the tumor vasculature in vivo.

efavirenz tablets 200mg viagra

Photoelectron transport ability of chloroplast thylakoid membranes treated with NO donor SNP: changes in flash oxygen evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence. Fat and protein intake increased to 38 and 73 g/24 h, respectively. Small amounts of antigen-coupled beads adherent to object slides provide a simple, quick, economical and sensitive immunohistochemical means of detecting antibodies in serum by both immunofluorescence and immunohistoperoxidase procedures.

azt 3tc efavirenz prescribing

Characterization of human phosphoserine aminotransferase involved in the phosphorylated pathway of L-serine biosynthesis. Using a mini-scale full-length cDNA overexpressor (FOX) gene hunting system, we generated 250 independent transgenic rice plants overexpressing individual rice CDPKs (CDPK FOX-rice lines).

efavirenz child dose of zofran

Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with increased average ReHo values in the insula which could be detected in the active acupoint group. The O-phenyl oxime ether substrates are constructed in a single step from readily available ketones. Evidence now supports the concept that the enamel on a tooth acts like a compression dome, much like the dome of a cathedral. Six commercially available FFR models were contaminated with H1N1 influenza virus as aerosols or droplets that are representative of human respiratory secretions.

lamivudina tenofovir efavirenz and depression

Intrafraction tumor movement was highly variable between patients. We further demonstrated the utility of the iPhos toolkit on the data of human metastatic lung cancer cells (CL1-5). Species are endowed with unique sensory capabilities that are encoded by divergent neural circuits. Impaired enzyme induction is apparent quite early during ascorbic acid depletion in guinea pigs.

efavirenz common side effects

The results of comparisons of the electron microscope and immunofluorescent examinations of experimental and control monkeys showed that the majority of the experimental animals with positive immunofluorescent tests were shown by the electron microscope examinations to have virus particles type C. The use of rigid plate constructs with divergent screw directions will predictably place screws in areas of the humeral head comprising low density and low strength cancellous bone. Bogijetong decoction (BGJTD) is a herbal drug formulation used in the traditional Asian medicine to treat neuropathic insults associated with diabetes and anticancer therapy.

cipla duovir and efavirenz co-packer

As a result, there has been a surge of interest in understanding the impact of obesity on genitourinary malignancies. Despite a growing body of evidence, the associations between breast milk PUFA and allergic disease have not previously been systematically reviewed.

tenofovir lamivudine efavirenz fixed dose combination products

Endobronchial metallic stent placement for airway complications after lung transplantation: longitudinal results. These studies describe the IgE-mediated relase of a basophil kallikrein-like enzyme that is an arginine esterase and is inhibited by plasma, diisopropylphosphofluoridate, and Trasylol.

cipla duovir and efavirenz co-pack agreements

Only 11 per cent of surgeons had experienced cocaine toxicity in their patients, with only one recorded case of mortality. The optimized PVPA model has shown potential to be applied in a more standardized, cheaper, and ethical way for the screening of PE. Inhibitory and synergistic effects of natural olive phenols on human platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation of microsomes from vitamin E-deficient rats. Report of a case with deep vein agenesis and review of the literature. A DIR technique was improved by implementing additional boundary conditions associated with the dose-volume response in series with a previously developed biomechanical DIR algorithm.

efavirenz in pregnancy 2012 movies

MR leads to a decrease in invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the real cost of MR seems to be less than expected. This philosophical point of view aims at offering a description of some ethical issues arisen from this question.

efavirenz 600 mg precious moments

The decrease in daily sugar intake and prevalence of seafarers with metabolic syndrome might be associated with the cooking course intervention which aimed at providing healthier daily meals on board. However, C5 and C6 have a risk of facet joint violation, which needs C4 and C5 inferior articular process removal for screw placement.

efavirenz dose response

The DNA synthesis was inhibited by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK that prevents ERK1/ERK2 activation. The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases. Overall, our data described the promising therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of combining paclitaxel with curcumin in treating breast cancer. Bio-chemical estimations like total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose, sialic acid and pepsin were also made.

efavirenz dose reduction chemotherapy

Antischistosome antibodies change NTPDase 1 activity from macrophages. In the classical deterministic Elman model, the estimation of parameters must be very accurate. The potential value of adding pharmacy claims data to the medication history in the electronic health record (EHR) to improve the accuracy of medication reconciliation was studied.

Testimonials
Best
 Show Hide 
nnrti mutations efavirenz package 2012-12-21

We assessed the relationship of LGE with myocardial and inflammatory biomarkers measured during the acute phase of myocarditis and their predictive value lansoprazole side effects long term use on clinical outcome. Differential expression of the pituitary gonadotropin subunit genes during male rat sexual maturation: reciprocal relationship between hypothalamic pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and follicle-stimulating hormone beta expression.

efavirenz side effects medscape pharmacist 2014-05-12

Key words: Lateral cephalometric radiograph, extraction, treatment planning, skeletal Class I. In the extreme North, the polar region of Siberian Russia, the largest mining and processing lanzol medicine ball enterprises for metallic and nonmetallic ores, coal, oil, and gas are situated. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of cathepsin S immunoreactive deposits within cytosolic vacuoles (lysosomes), at the plasma membrane and in ER buds. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity.

efavirenz 600 mg vademecum online 2010-01-31

Erlotinib efficacy in NSCLC patients with high polysomy of chromosome 7 and EGFR/KRas wild-type tumors. Intravitreal injection of 25 mg of crystalline triamcinolone acetonide merits further study for the treatment of exudative age related macular degeneration. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries: an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent ranclav 375 tablets co amoxiclav dosage G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking versus during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia.

efavirenz bcs classification of risperidone 2018-10-07

The value of masters educational programmes for specialist registrars in rheumatology. We engineered expression constructs in ribavirin dosage in lassa fever which cDNAs encoding individual immunoglobulin-like domains of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF-7) receptor were fused to the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain Fc domain (HFc).

efavirenz reclassified as fda pregnancy category d 2017-02-04

Interestingly, elevated levels of serum sIL-5R alpha were observed in NZB and NZW mice. Bedisde nursing: Care of post-tracheotomy uses metrogyl 400 used for patients in the neurosurgical department The cases represent 5.5 per cent of the total number of reports examined (8,532). No cytopathic or transformation changes were caused by the virus in any of the systems examined.

efavirenz tablets usp monograph definition 2019-01-07

In contrast, X-linked thrombocytopenia patients show reduced platelet size and counts but no cytoskeletal white blood cell defects have been detected so far. Consciousness regained after 20 gm dextrose water was given intravenously. However, for healthcare providers, the definition of malnutrition is vague, insensitive, and poorly standardized. The E6 and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are expressed in cell lines derived from cervical cancers pinaclav antibiotic and can immortalize primary human keratinocytes. Birds receiving both supplements significantly advanced laying in both years, and increased clutch size in 2000 but not in 2001.

efavirenz capsules 200mg caffeine 2013-08-13

Contributions of long-term research and time-series observations to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The albumin/creatinine (ACR) was calculated in addition to 24 h urinary protein (24-h UPr), serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), esram xbox one vs ps4 total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and creatinine clearance rate (Ccr). In contrast, methods for detection of protein-protein interactions lack the simplicity inherent to enzyme and receptor assays. 1.To detect diagnostic yield of medical thoracoscopy in pleural effusions of unknown etiology. Staff unblinding occurred and highlights the difficulty with investigator blinding in device-based trials.

efavirenz 600 precious metal prices 2018-08-29

We originally discovered the serum and glucocorticoid inducible protein kinase, SGK, as a novel protein kinase that is under acute transcriptional control by serum and glucocorticoids. Objective information on patient mobility can be collected for hospitalized older persons. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. In many cellular and preclinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in deflamon 100 ml beaker translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes.